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Lydie Mengwelune [18]
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Mengwelune, Lydia
1886 to 1966 [1]
Evangelical Church of Cameroon
Cameroon


Of all the Christians that came from the work of the Basel Mission to the Bamoun region (1906-1915) during the German colonial period, as well as from the activity of the French Evangelical Mission Society of Paris there (1917-1957), Lydia Mengwelune has not gone unnoticed by Christian authors. For more than any other believer from this same region, her life and her conversion to the Christian faith have been brought to light through the writings of several missionaries. Even though the church at that time was filled with very respectable converts - elders, catechists, evangelists and pastors - none had their life story published in books and illustrated magazine articles, and none were featured on postcards that were in circulation in Cameroon as well as in Europe. An emblematic figure in an era that ignored the voices of women, she flashed like a lightning bolt out of that darkness with a brilliance that instantly lit up the court of King Njoya in Foumban and the Bamoun nobility of Nji Wamben. Her light burned brightly, blazing a path down country lanes and city streets as a remarkable evangelist who proclaimed the Good News of the love of God in Jesus Christ. Who was this woman?

Her Childhood

Lydia Mengwelune was the daughter of Nji Mofen and Mandu [2], and was born in the Njiyoum neighborhood of Foumban. Her father was a nobleman who carried out his duties as head of all the servants of No Pemboura, the sister of Ngungure, who was the mother of King Nsangou, who was in turn the father of King Njoya. Her mother Mandu was the cousin of King Njoya, through his paternal lineage. The name Mengwelune, which is composed of two words - Mengwen, which means "I was going", and lutne, which means "to rejoice" - had a deep impact on her character, as is often the case with names. The first impact was negative, as it concerned her life of sensuality with the king, but the second was positive, as it related to her journey in the Christian faith. Lydia was the second girl born to her mother, who gave birth to seventeen children, only one of whom was a boy! This only son was the embodiment of Nji Mofen's hopes for the lineage he would leave after his death. Lydia enjoyed a peaceful childhood, and her parents cherished her more than all their other children.

Her Youth

Lydia was a very beautiful girl. In spite of her young age, and in keeping with the customs of that time, she was given as a bride-to-be to Bankumbu, who was the warrior chief of King Njoya. Since she had not yet reached the required age for marriage, she was allowed - again, according to customary practice at that time - to enter the harem of her fiancé, and to spend her time there. Her future husband, who was beginning a campaign against the rebel Prime Minister Gbetkom-Ndombue on the front at Manga at that time, took her with him. That war went on for two years, and only ended when the cavalry of the Fula people from the lamido [3] of Banyo came to the aid of King Njoya and finally helped him to defeat the rebel and to re-establish peace.

During the return trip, Bankumbu, who had been feeding a long-standing disaffection with the king, decided to return to his native village of Mfowuon instead of regaining the capital at Foumban to resume his duties under the king. He requested that Lydia come with him, but she refused to go, on the pretext that the voyage was a very difficult one. Bankumbu went on to his home and lived there for a certain time, giving no answer to the king's many requests that he return to the capital at Foumban. He eventually undertook the trip and came back to settle peacefully in his quarters in Foumban. In the meantime, the king had discovered that he was part of a group that was plotting against him. The king had Bankumbu killed, even though he had been the general of his army for a long time, and had protected him from multiple and varied attacks. In his anger, the king not only had his general killed, but also Bankumbu's mother and brother, all on the same day. The entire town of Foumban was terribly upset by this slaughter.

Lydia had not yet overcome the pain and the fear caused by this brutal separation from her fiancé when another, even more violent tragedy struck her entire family. Her father, Nji Mofen, was accused of having killed his neighbor. The accusation came from the local Bamoun region seer who consulted the trapdoor spider, considered to have the power of revealing secrets. Upon hearing of the matter, the king pronounced a verdict without appeal and sentenced him to hang immediately, a sentence that was not in keeping with the legislation in effect at that time. As a result of that judgment and execution, Mandu, her daughter Lydia, her only son, all her other children and all of Mofen's other wives were banished, and were liable to be sold or distributed to anyone, according to the king's wishes. However, No Njapdunke, the Queen Mother of King Njoya, intervened for Mandu so that she and her children, as well as all of Nji Mofen's possessions, would come to no harm. She was able to do this in light of her parental relationship to the king. She had Nji Mofen's only son succeed him so that he would always be remembered. To comfort Mandu, No Njapdunke often asked her to come and spend time with her, in spite of all that had happened with her husband. The king, knowing that he should have intervened, came to regret his rush to judgment, but he had acted within his rights in the light of his duties. Nonetheless, wasn't Mandu a close blood relative of the king? She had to forget the past and look toward the future. No Njapdunke took care of Mandu and her children's needs. Lydia accompanied her mother when she went on her visits to the palace. Having noticed her beauty and her intelligence, No Njapdunke asked her mother if she could keep her there and see to her education, as a gift of consolation to her. Mandu gratefully accepted.

Dancer to the king

While she lived at the palace, Lydia received all the benefits of being under the good care of No Njapdunke. She was given gifts of all kinds: clothing, shoes, finery, beauty oils… and even a special diet, as she was under the protection of the Queen Mother. She wanted for nothing. She was very gracious, courteous and intelligent. Her beauty was one of the things people talked about all over the palace, whether among the king's wives, among the servants, or among the commoners who came to the palace on business. All were struck by the fresh nature of her beauty. Who did she belong to? Who would dare to approach No Njapdunke in asking for her hand? All the ambitious attention of the various young men and noblemen came up against the presence of the Queen Mother. Indeed, she was more to be feared than her own son, the king. Nonetheless, innocent as ever, Lydia Mengwelune's presence just kept on shining on everyone, much as a bright moon shines in a beautiful starry night. Since the king visited his mother Njapdunke every day, he soon saw the incredibly beautiful Lydia and began to love her in spite of the interdict against such things within the context of an extended family. Even with the primacy the king enjoyed over the institutions of the Bamoun people, he could not marry her, as he would be accused of incest. Nonetheless, he was unable to resist Lydia Mengwelune's intensely seductive beauty and intelligence. For this reason, his mother advised him to have her as a concubine. Didn't all men have concubines? Who could condemn the king for that?

In this manner, Lydia became the king's friend, much to the detriment of all his wives. The women from this latter group who had been friends to the king began to despise her. Lydia gave the king pleasure whenever he asked for it. In return, he gave her so many gifts that all his wives became jealous. Like the other royal concubines, Lydia had lodgings in a house next to the palace. Men of meager means could consort with these concubines on the sly. Lydia, however, received all the attention of the young king. He especially enjoyed conversation with her because they were approximately the same age. Since the king had befriended her, Lydia, in turn, had nurtured the courage to confront him and to bring up many of life's questions in their discussions. The king was very fond of her company.

Lydia was not only beautiful, but she also knew how to dance, and the art of the dance was very much admired by the Bamoun in those days. Her silhouette and her gestures absolutely captivated the king when she performed certain dances. To add to his pleasure, King Njoya invited her to dance a new composition with him when he wore a mask. The combination of the musical singing of the tune and the choreography of their steps as they danced together allowed King Njoya and Lydia to reach the high point of their sensual relationship. At such moments, the king was unable to hide his natural desire for a young woman who was not his wife, but who was the one that gave him the emotional satisfaction he needed. As they danced, cries of appreciation came from the crowd in Bamoun: "A pu tetune!" ("That's very good!").

Their appreciative cries were being called out for the last time, although neither party was aware of it at the time. A succession of events was occurring in the kingdom, events that were going to affect every last person. Lydia Mengwelune, dancer to the king, was going to leave him forever and find true joy in the things of the kingdom of God. She was going to leave the pleasures she enjoyed with King Njoya in order to embrace the joy of Jesus Christ, the King of Kings and the Lord of Lords.

A Freed Servant of Jesus Christ

While she lived at the palace, which was the epicenter of all the royal institutions, and the place where all problems concerning the Bamoun people were dealt with, Lydia had a privileged position: she was King Njoya's principal conversation partner. He told her about many events, and often discussed them with her. They had spoken at length about the help of the Fula cavalry that had come from the Banyo chief during the insurrection of Prime Minister Gbetkom-Ndombue, and also about the whites who had arrived with their soldiers, as well as about other white merchants that came later. In fact, the Germans wanted to collaborate with King Njoya, and they came to him with an offer of friendship from their king. An employee of one of these merchants named Samé had spoken about the God who had sent his son to save the world. Having heard these strange stories, King Njoya called the man and made serious inquiries about this message. He also had the stories transcribed into the Shumom language. He was so interested in knowing about this God that he offered Samé money so that he could stay and teach the Bamoun people. He declined the offer however, and said that messengers from God would come one day. Samé went on his way, and no-one knows where he came from.

Later on, two young Bamoun named Mah and Nguin, who had gone to Bali to visit family, stayed on there for schooling. In addition to learning how to write, they learned the wonderful stories of the Word of God. When they returned to Foumban, they told their family about what they had learned, and the stories were circulated until they reached the king. Having listened to these young people and having been touched by hearing these stories that were unknown among his people, the king sent the pair back to Bali to ask the white people if they would also come and teach these stories to the Bamoun.

On April 10, 1906, a German pastor from the Basel Mission named Martin Gohring arrived in Foumban, in answer to the king's request. The excitement this caused could be felt in the whole city. King Njoya gave them the highest hill in the city, at Njisse. He quickly had lodgings and a school built, as well as the Nda Nyinyi (the house of God), the church, built in the central marketplace. The king himself listened attentively to the sermons. He also told his wives and his daughters to attend the meetings regularly. Rhein-Wuhrmann explains what happened next:
Mengwelune, the king's friend, went also. More than all the other women, she was moved by what she heard. Shortly thereafter, the king sensed that a great change was taking place in the young woman's heart. She didn't seek his presence as often as before. She could often be seen alone, lost in her thoughts, crying. She never missed a worship service, but little by little, she was moving away from the king.

One day she appeared before the king and humbly but firmly told him: "I have been going to the worship service of the Christians every day that they call Sunday. They say many good things, and their words have entered my heart. Their God says: 'Happy are those who have a pure heart,' but I do not have a pure heart, and I have done much wrong. The king's wives hate me, and they are right to do so. I can no longer be the king's friend. May he give me away in marriage to a good man!"

This came as a cruel blow to King Njoya. He begged and pleaded with Lydia, and gave her many presents and caresses, but nothing could change her mind. The king's efforts were of no account to the young lady because her very soul was in torment about the new message that she had heard. The king came to believe that he had not lost the battle, and that the change that had come about in the life of his friend was only the passing fancy of a woman. He was all the more astonished and disappointed when Lydia told him that she wanted to become a Christian and that she was now taking catechism classes that would prepare her for baptism. [4]
Light comes to Nji Wamben

Lydia Mengwelune became the 31st wife of Nji Wamben, a nobleman who was in the king's service. She was a fine present, and her husband hoped that she would help him get closer to the king in light of his royal ancestry and his prior history with the king. Nji Wamben showered her with presents and gave her the highest standing among all his wives. He loved to have her near him when he was not on duty in the court because her beauty, her intelligence and her other qualities contributed to the increased respect he enjoyed. He knew that his wife had adopted the Christian faith, and he allowed her to attend the worship services even though he did not attend himself. He believed that in time, her manner of thinking would fade away.

In the meantime, Lydia was a catechist in the school in Njisse, and she was growing rapidly in the faith. The more she understood, the more she allowed older practices that were not in keeping with the Word of God to fall away: making sacrifices to the dead, and the killing of harmless chameleons that according to Bamoun beliefs were thought to be messengers of death. She became unafraid of the power of the trapdoor spider, a belief that had brought about the death of her father. She no longer feared spirits, witchdoctors, and the evil eye. God was now in charge of her life. Her contemporaries and those who were baptized with her recount that her faith and her love were both quite vibrant. While she was still very young and living with her mother, she had had a dream that she only understood the meaning of now that she was living as a Christian.

All the progress in her spiritual life and the knowledge she had gained from the catechism led her to be among the first 80 Bamoun candidates for baptism, out of a class of 166. It was at this time that she was given the baptismal name of Lydia, because she also could say, "The Lord has opened my heart." She was baptized Lydia Mengwelune on December 25, 1909, by Pastor Martin Gohring.

Persecution and Witness

Lydia's husband, Nji Wamben, had become exasperated by the commitment that his wife was making to the Christian faith. He pleaded with her serenely, saying, "Please don't cause me this grief and shame; do not leave aside the customs of your fathers." [5] King Njoya began to incite Nji Wamben to persecute his wife. He began to treat his faithful wife cruelly, and progressed from reproaches and humiliations to threats and actual physical torture. He had Lydia removed from her beautiful house and gave her a servant's hut to live in. The other wives made fun of her and treated her with contempt. Her right to receive help from the slaves was taken away, and her husband no longer paid any attention to her except to call her so that he could vent his anger at her over anything that happened that might be her fault. He even beat her so violently that she was left with permanent scars. Lydia had always been a pampered child and had never been treated in such a terrible way.

Lydia shouldered her trials just as she carried her cross, finding comfort and consolation in the Word of God. In time however, her living conditions became unbearable. She went to Ms. Rhein-Wuhrmann, one of the missionaries there, and said, "Take me as your servant girl. I cannot stand to live with my husband any longer." [6] This missionary lady told her to honor her Christian faith in the circumstances she was in, and that Jesus would help her more than she could help herself. She also went to speak with Lydia's husband, Nji Wamben, and found him to be quite embarrassed by the fact that he loved his wife, but hated Christianity. Pressured by other noblemen to do so, he continued to mistreat Lydia. Ms. Wuhrmann wrote: "All of us at the mission felt great pity for Lydia because we were powerless witnesses to her situation, and she was suffering terribly." [7]

During the First World War (1914-1918), the German missionaries left Foumban in chains, escorted by the English. Lydia lost the help she had found in Ms. Rhein-Wuhrmann, her advisor and friend. She cried out, "I am like an orphan now, an orphan!" "God is your Father, dear Lydia, and Jesus your advisor," answered her dear friend. With that exchange, Ms. Rhein-Wuhrmann and Lydia, two disciples of Christ, were separated. [8]

The two years that followed the missionaries' departure (1916-1918), were increasingly difficult for the small Christian community in Foumban, as one persecution followed another. King Njoya outlawed the practice of the Christian faith in his kingdom and converted to Islam. He asked that all his subjects become Muslim, just as he had. Muslim husbands like Nji Wamben and Nji Mama - the spouse of Shachembe Marguerite, a friend of Lydia's - who held high positions in the royal court, found themselves forced to persecute their Christian wives in order to keep favor with the king. On several occasions, churches were attacked by these very officials, who had their wives taken away in a very violent manner. On another occasion, the king's own soldiers carried out the orders. In spite of her own suffering, Lydia sought out the persecuted and gave them strength and courage. She braved humiliation in her own milieu, and her life was her confession of faith. Through her witness, the other wives of her husband came to faith in Jesus Christ.

In Alexandra Loumpet-Galitzine's book, Njoya and the Bamoun Kingdom, the author of Lydia's biography writes:
Her faith and her love for the savior were very much alive. She was an example to the other wives. Lydia loved her husband and didn't stand for any disobedience on the part of the other wives. Her firm Christian character left the other wives without excuse. When she returned from worship, she gathered all her fellow wives around her and spoke to them about the Christ who died for the sins of the whole world… She also dispensed good advice to all the people who worked for the chief. This chief, who was a Muslim, saw their good behavior and the good example they set, and allowed everyone to go to the Christian meetings. On Sunday, a great number of men and women could be seen going to church, led there by this brave disciple of the Lord. [9] Such eyewitness accounts came from others as well, not only from Christians. Nji Wamben, her husband, also saw the good influence that Lydia had on his affairs, because a Christian spirit came to influence every aspect of the lives of his wives, who were also mothers and housekeepers. His behavior towards his Christian wife Lydia changed, and he allowed his other wives to attend the pre-baptismal catechism. One day he told Ms. Wuhrmann, "Ever since my wives became Christian or started to attend the teaching that leads to baptism, life in my house has changed a lot. I don't hear quarreling any more, only joyful singing, and the work gets done peaceably and well. Basically, everything is better than it used to be." [10]
That is how Lydia, who was a persecuted Christian wife, changed the outlook and the beliefs of her husband Nji Wamben, his wives, their children and their servants. They had formerly held to traditional religion, then they became Muslim, and finally, thanks to the light of Christ, they became Christians.

Elder in the Church

The German missionaries had not organized the church by setting up the ministry of deacon, elder and evangelist, much less that of pastor. They had given themselves to the preparation of disciples and overseers, or catechists, to go out and preach and teach. Later, the Paris Mission settled in that region, having sent Pastor Elie Allégret, who first visited Foumban in 1917. After that first visit, he sent a Douala man named Max Mpacko there, the first teacher to arrive with a formal education. It was this bright man who helped the church - a church that had emerged victoriously from persecution - to get organized by choosing elders. A total of eight elders were chosen from a community of 300 souls. Four men and four women - Lydia was one of them - were chosen, and Lydia was certainly chosen because of her witness. Ms. Wuhrmann writes: "And what a memorable day it was when the most influential Christians: Mose Yeyap, Josué Muishe, Jean Njikam and others called Lydia to sit with them as a church elder! A woman, seated in the council of men! With the same voting rights, no less! A woman, such a despised creature among the pagans! It was unbelievable! But these community leaders had exercised good judgment and had made a good choice." 11]

As an elder, Lydia was a superb teacher in the Girls School in Njisse, where she was assistant to Ms. Wuhrmann. But even more, whether at home or elsewhere, she was always invested in good works and in caring for the destitute.

Teacher in the Girls School

Taking advantage of her Swiss nationality, Ms. Wuhrmann returned to Foumban in the service of the Paris Mission on the 10th of July, 1920, after the war. She reorganized the school that until then had been run by Paolo Pepuere, one of King Njoya's brothers. Since the non-Christian husbands did not want a man teaching their wives, the burden on Ms. Wuhrmann increased dramatically: enrollment quadrupled, going from 80 students to 320. She wrote: "A very mixed group pressed in all around me during the lessons: old women who were tired and worn out, young women full of life, pretty women from the king's court, and the very poor, who had been raised in miserable slave huts. Virtually all of them wanted to have contact with Jesus… I did not have enough time to take care of all of these women outside of the lesson time, even though I wished that I could. For hours at a time, my dear Lydia, who was one of the elders in the church, filled in for me." [12]

As the various written testimonies of missionaries at the time attest, Lydia devotedly carried out her work. Charles Maître, in commentary written to supplement 85 images showing the work in Cameroon from 1924 to 1925, said this about image number 70: "Lydia, one of our brave Christians. You can see the hairstyle, the tattoos, the pierced ear, the two 3-Mark coins, but what you can't see is the faithfulness and devotion of this brave woman who is now overseer of the Girls School." [13] When Ms. Wuhrmann left Foumban after her second missionary term, she put all the catechetical teaching in Lydia's hands. In her book, Portraits of Women in Cameroon, published in 1931, she mentions the fact that Lydia had assumed that task. For a long time, Lydia continued to teach the faith to generations of Bamoun Christian women whose lives were transformed, and who influenced their marriages, their children, and their society.

Itinerant Evangelist

Lydia was also chosen as an elder because she exercised her gift for evangelization. Jean Njimonia writes: "She became an elder because she loved to serve. The church has had women elders and still has them, but Lydia was an elder par excellence. She visits our neighborhood churches and gives good counsel to catechists and Christians alike. She knows how to comfort brothers who are afflicted. She feeds orphaned children that she has taken in of her own free will. She has taught many catechists' wives. Ms. Rhein-Wuhrmann loves her more than anything else. She calls her 'friend' and it is quite truly so." [14]

That witness of a native missionary and the witness of other missionaries show that Lydia was committed to preaching the Good News, not only in her own home and her local church, but beyond. She had a broad view of the ministry entrusted to her. As the Lord Jesus said: "To whom much is given, much will be required." Because Lydia had received much from the Lord, she gave back enough of what she had gotten, and even more.

Lydia did not only preach, as is often the case with evangelists. What she taught was made real through her actions as well. She cared for sick Christians and catechists alike, giving them encouragement. She received women who had been persecuted and chased from their homes because of their faith, and saw to their protection. At times, there were four young women living in her house, and sometimes more. If someone in the church had left town because of persecution or had been temporarily put out of the community of faith because of sin, Lydia had no peace until she went out and found that person. Sometimes, she even brought them home with her. In light of her social standing, she was not allowed to walk the paths of neighboring villages alone, so Nji Wamben gave her some slaves, and they would always go with her.

Lydia's zeal for evangelism makes it clear that her faith was not simply a question of vocation. She belonged so totally to her Lord that everything she did was of an evangelistic nature. Lydia's faith was active in service and was evident in the loving things she did for others, all to the greater glory of God.

The Meaning of Jesus Christ in Her Life

Lydia Mengwelune was a woman whose faith in Jesus Christ could be described as fervent. She had only learned to read and write in her native language, which was Bamoun. She had received no schooling in French or in German because she was already an adult by the time a school opened in Foumban. She had no Bible School training in evangelism. However, changed through her in-depth study of the Bible and her love for Jesus, she became one of the great figures of the Christian faith in the Bamoun region and in Cameroon, even in Africa one could say, and even the whole world.

Who was Jesus to this woman who committed herself body and soul to serve Him, even at the risk of her life? What follows is one of the last accounts of her beautiful profession of faith in Christ:
In 1924, as the 14th of July grew near, the king called his chamberlain and told him: 'Talk to your wife, Mengwelune, and tell her to dance for the white people's holiday.' Nji Wamben told me himself that his answer to the king was: "My King knows very well that Mengwelune is a Christian and that Christians do not dance. How can I tell her to do what the king commands?" So Njoya sent two messengers to plead with her, that she might do the king's bidding. He also promised her goats, palm oil, corn, peanuts, and the most beautifully made scarf from the royal looms. Lydia laughed when she received the message, thinking that it must be a joke. A little later, she realized that it was a serious proposition. This was her answer: "Go and tell the king that Mengwelune needs her feet and her hands, as well as her body and her heart, for her service to God." The king did not insist any further. Lydia had a few laughs over that pretentious request and was able to show in that incident how foreign all those things were to her now, all those things that used to make her so happy. [15]
Through such incidents, Lydia was able to help the king and her husband Nji wamben - two men who were friends, but who had persecuted her - to understand who Jesus Christ was for her. By staying faithful to Jesus, she shared the Gospel with her husband - he who had humiliated and mistreated her - and he eventually came to faith in Christ. An anonymous source once cried out: "Is there anyone among all the missionaries and all the Christians who has not praised Lydia for her great faith and for her love in the service of God? She is the only native Christian woman whose name is known both here and in Europe, as well as in America and everywhere else. May our Lord keep sending such women elders to his poor Bamoun church! What a great native Christian!" [16]

The memory of Lydia Mengwelune is still very much alive, especially in Foumban, but also in the whole Bamoun region. Generations of Christians have been born and have multiplied through the witness of this faithful disciple. The church in the Bamoun region could count 35 places of worship in 1931, and it grew into two Synods: North Noun (principal center at Foumban), and South Noun (principal center at Foumbot). The church in Foumban is proud to have the first mega-church of Cameroon: called "Ndaambassie," it seats more than 14,000 people. Such is the fruit borne by Lydia Mengwelune, who has gone on to rejoice with Her Lord in His Kingdom. [17]

Robert Adamou Pindzié



Notes:

1. These dates are approximate, as more accurate information is lacking.
2. Rhein-Wuhrmann and Nicod do not use the same names, nor do they use the same spelling for family names.
3. A lamido is a chief.
4. Rhein-Wuhrmann, Portraits of Women, p.33.
5. Portraits, p.36.
6. Portraits, p.37.
7. Idem.
8. Idem.
9. Loumpet-Galitzine, p. 166.
10. Portraits, p.41.
11. Idem.
12. Loumpet-Galitzine, p. 287.
13. Loumpet-Galitzine, p.296.
14. Loumpet-Galitzine, p.166
15. Portraits, p.43.
16. Loumpet-Galitzine, p.166.
17. The following letter, originally written in Bamoun by Lydia Mengwelune to her friend Rhein-Wuhrmann, is appended here (Portraits, p.44):
Foumban, July 9, 1927

Dear friend, my mother, do you think of me and do you have sleepless nights as I do because of you? Oh, I know that often you can't sleep when you think of me. I want to thank you for having written the story of my life in a book. If everything is well with me in Foumban, it is thanks to you; if people love me and say good things about me, you are the reason why that is so. I have been very sick and my body was broken. I thought I was going to die (rheumatoid arthritis); now however, I am well again. (News of several people follows…) I, who am your child, greet you warmly.

Lydia Mengwelune
Bibliography:

Francis Grob, Témoins Camerounais de l'Evangile (les Origines de l'Eglise Evangélique) [Cameroonian Witnesses to the Gospel (The Origins of the Evangelical Church)] (Yaoundé : Editions CLE, 1967).
Alexandra Loumpet-Galitzine, Njoya et le royaume Bamoun. Les archives de la Société des Missions Evangéliques de Paris, [Njoya and the Bamoun Kingdom. Archives of the Paris Evangelical Missions Society] (Paris : Karthala Editions, 2006).
Joseph Mfochive, Moise Lamere, Rodolphe Peshandon, Quatre vingt ans de christianisme en pays bamoun [Eighty Years of Christianity in the Bamoun Region] (Foumban, 1986).
Henri Nicod, La Danseuse du roi [Dancer to the king] (Neuchâtel : Delachaux and Niestle, 1950).
Anna Rhein-Wuhrmann, Fumban die Stadt auf dem Schutte, Arbeitbund Ernte im Missiondienst in Kamerun (Basel: Basler Missionsbuchhandlung GmbH, 1948).
-------, Au Cameroon, Portraits de Femmes [Portraits of Women in Cameroon] translated from the German by Ms. E. Lack (Paris: Société des Missions Evangéliques, 1931).
Jap Van Slageren, Les origines de l'église Evangélique au Cameroun. Missions et christianisme autochtone [The Origins of the Evangelical Church in Cameroon. Missions and Native Christianity] (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1972).


This article, received in 2008, was researched and written by Rev. Robert Adamou Pindzié, 2007-2008 Project Luke Fellow. Rev. Pindzié is a professor in the Faculté de Théologie Evangélique du Cameroun [Evangelical Seminary of Cameroon] in Yaoundé.