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Winfried Ebers and K. F. Hoeflich
Active 1927 to 1932 and 1939 to 1966 respectively
German Evangelical Church
Namibia

Pastor Winfried Ebers became synonymous with the consolidating of the German Evangelical Churches throughout Southern Africa. He came to Windhoek in 1924, and set himself the task of reorganizing the German congregations of the GEC after the disruption of World War I.[1] His most important achievement was the establishment of the Deutschen Kirchenbundes in Süd und Südwestafrika in 1926. At the first meeting of the Kirchenbundes on October 1, 1926, Pastor Ebers was elected as its first chairman and in January 1927 also as Landespropst of the GEC in Namibia.[2] At the same time, he became the first editor of the Heimat, a monthly newsletter of the GEC, and, in 1930, the first editor of the annually published Afrikanischer Heimatkalender. As editor of these periodicals, Ebers made sure that the GEC became the proper "home" for all Protestant Christian Germans of Namibia for many years, with a unique blend of Lutheranism and German patriotism.

When Pastor Ebers left Namibia in 1932, he was succeeded as Landespropst by Pastor G. Andreas Wackwitz for six years (1933-1939). However, in 1939, Pastor K. F. Hoeflich became Landespropst for the amazing period of twenty-seven years (1939-1966). World War II broke out two weeks after his arrival in Windhoek on August 15, 1939. For the duration of the war, Pastor Hoeflich was interned by the South African government, together with the German missionaries who also served as pastors for the GEC (i.e. acting as German pastors). They were released only in December 1946. Pastor Hoeflich described his remarkable ministry in the Heimatkalander. (Hoeflich 1961: 82-85) [3]

Gerhard Buys and Shekutaamba Nambala


Notes:

1. For discussion on his predecessors, see Buys & Nambala 2003, chapters 6 and 10.
2. See the photo of the first executive of the GEC in Buys & Nambala.
3. This story is taken from Buys & Nambala 2003, p. 205.

Bibliography:

Main source

Buys, G. L. & Nambala, S. V. V. 2003. History of the Church in Namibia 1805 - 1990, an Introduction. Windhoek: Gamsberg Macmillan.
Namibia Research Institute (www.nets.iway.na/research)

Unpublished & Published References

1994 Field Directory: SDA in Namibia. Unpublished church data-sheet of the Namibian field, supplied by Rev. Coombs, SDA Field President of the Central Region.

Beris, A. P. J. 1996. From Mission to Local Church: One hundred years of mission by the Catholic Church in Namibia, with special reference to the development of the Archdiocese of Windhoek and the Apostolic Vicariate of Rundu. Windhoek: John Meinert.

Buys, G. L. 1983. Die holistiese sendingbenadering in die ekumeniese diskussie met besondere verwysing na die Kerk en Sending in Suidwes-Afrika/Namibië. Unpublished D.Th. thesis, University of Stellenbosch.

Christians, N. C. 1957. Afrikaanse Metodisme, 'n Kort oorsig: Richard Allen, vader van die Afrikaanse Metodisme in Suidwes-Afrika. Keetmanshoop: Unpublished manuscript.

Friesen, R. H. 1994. "Origins of the Spiritual Healing Church in Botswana" in Oosthuizen, Kitshoff, Dube (Ed). Afro-Christianity at the Grassroots, Its Dynamics and Strategies. New York: E. J. Brill, p.37-50.

Hellberg, C.-J. 1979. A Voice of the Voiceless - The Involvement of the Lutheran World Federation in Southern Africa 1947-1977. Lund: Skeab Verbum.

Hoeflich, K. F. 1961. "In und nach dem Zweiten Weltkriege: 20 Jahre kirchliche Arbeit," in Afrikanischer Heimatkalender, pp. 82-85.

Hunke, N. 1996. Church and State: 100 years of Catholic Mission in Namibia. Windhoek: RCC, John Meinert Printers.

Kamburona, A. C. 1975. Church Order of Oruuano. Unpublished manuscript.

Kandovazu, E. 1968. Die Oruuano-Beweging. Karibib, ELK Boekdepot.

Kritzinger, J. J. 1972, Sending en Kerk in Suidwes-Afrika - Band I & II. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Pretoria. (references to pages in the first volume are indicated by normal page numbers, while pages from the second volume are indicated by adding 'b' in front of the particular page numbers).

Lau, B. (Ed.). 1995b. An Investigation of the Shooting at the Old Location on 10 December 1959. Windhoek: DISCOURSE/MSORP Publications.

Nieuwoudt, M. M. 1979a. Die Nedertduitse Gereformeerde Kerk in Suidwes-Afrika. Woordbediening in pioniersomstandighede op weg na 'n selfstandige sinode, 'n kerkhistoriese studie. Unpublished D.Th. thesis, Stellenbosch University.

Oosthuizen, H. Z. M. 1995. Eerwaarde E.J. Leonard: Pionier van die Boere-gemeenskap. Unpublished M.Th. dissertation at the University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein.

Pakenham, T. 1979. The Boer War. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. (or the Afrikaans version 1981. Die Boere Oorlog. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball.)

Pöllitzer 1978: Die eigene Kerze anzünden! Untersuching zu Entstehung, Lehre, Leitung und Leben in der Oruuano. (The Protestant Unity Church of South West Africa). Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Pretoria.

Robson, N. and A. Luff. 1999a. A short history of the Anglican Church in northern Namibia, 1924-1999. Unpublished bound manuscript.

Robson, N. and A. Luff. 1999b. A history of the Anglican Church. (The longer edition). Unpublished manuscript.

Shejavali, A. 1970b. The Ovambo-Kavango Church.(Ongerki Yomowambokavango). Helsinki: Kauppakirjapaino Oy, pp. 24-32 (this title is often referred to simply as OKC).

Strassberger, E. 1969. The Rhenish Mission Society in South Africa, 1830-1950. Cape Town: C. Struik.

Sundermeier, T. 1973. Wir aber suchten Gemeinschaft, Kirchwerdung und Kirchentrennung in Südwestafrika. Erlangen, Luther Verlag.

Voipio, R. 1972a. History of the Evangelical Lutheran Ovambo Kavango Church. Oniipa: ELOK (the English translation of the 1968 Afrikaans edition).


Church periodicals

Immanuel, monthly journal of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Republic of Namibia (ELCRN).

CCN Information, monthly journal of the Council of Churches in Namibia, during the nineteen-eighties.


Interviews & questionnaires

Christians, N. C. 2002. Unpublished notes forwarded on request to Buys, on 22 May 2002. Rev. Nicholas Christians was the pastor of the Trinity AME Church in Keetmanshoop for an uninterrupted period of 43 years (1953 - 1997). In 1998, he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the Wilberforce Institute of the AMEC in USA.

Mubonenwa, L. 1997. Response of Pastor Mubonenwa on the Questionnaire forwarded by Buys, dated 25 September 1997. Pastor Mubonenwa is the present Field President of the North East Namibia Field of the SDA Church.

Tjijombo, P. 2002. Interview of Buys with Bishop Petrus Tjijombo on 18 January 2002 at his house. Bishop Tjijombo was the founder and still active leader of the St. John's AFM in Namibia when this interview took place, after a ministry which started in 1953. The photo of his ministry starting in that year in the "old location" was unfortunately too bad to use in this publication.

Witbooi, H. 2002. Interview of Buys with the honourable Dr. Hendrik Witbooi, in Windhoek, on the history of Evangelists Petrus Jod and Marcus Witbooi. Dr. Witbooi is the son of Pastor Marcus Witbooi, who was a founder member of the AMEC in Namibia. At the time of the interview, Dr. Witbooi was Deputy Prime Minister in the Namibian government and leader of the AMEC (African Methodist Episcopal Church) in Namibia.

This article is reproduced, with permission, from History of the Church in Namibia, an Introduction - 1805-1990, Gamsberg Macmillan, Windhoek, Namibia, copyright © November 2003 by Dr. Gerhard Buys and Dr. Shekutaamba Nambala. All rights reserved.