Fox, William


William Fox was commissioned a reverend minister in 1831[1] and sent out as a Wesleyan Methodist missionary to The Gambia a year later. With his newly wedded wife Ann, the Reverend Thomas, and Mary Dove, Fox sailed from Gravesend, London, and arrived at St. Mary’s Island on April 23, 1833. This marked the beginning of ten years of service in The Gambia (1833-1843) broken only by two vacations from August to December 1835 and July 1839 to March 1840, respectively.

Fox, an architect, and builder by profession, supervised the construction of several chapels and schools at both St. Mary’s Island and Macarthy Island, 300 km away. The Georgetown Methodist Church (1833), Wesley Cathedral (1835), and Wesley School (1840) are enduring edifices to his name. As an evangelist of the Gospel, peacemaker, and recruiter of princes for education, Fox paid more visits to the palaces of the riverine kingdoms than any Wesleyan Methodist missionary of his time, establishing personal and trusting relationships with sitting sovereigns. As the chairman and general superintendent of the Gambia District for a decade (1833-1843), and the most senior missionary agent on the West Coast, Fox exercised some influence and limited oversight as well over the Districts in Sierra Leone, the Gold Coast, and the Slave Coast (Nigeria).

St. Mary’s Island Station Base

For the first three years (1833-1836) of his travel in The Gambia, Fox was headquartered at the newly built school-chapel mission house station on Mary’s Island. He developed a preaching and teaching plan to cover at least the six active stations on St. Mary’s Island and vicinity [see Map 2] of Jollof-Town Ward, Soldier-Town Ward; the Goderich Station about 3 km east of the settlement, the displaced Melville-Town Station that was by Oyster Creek; the Bakau Cape St. Mary’s Station on the Kombo mainland across the creek, and the Berwick-Town Station at Barra on the Ceded Mile within present-day North Bank Region, across the eleven-kilometer estuary.

Initially, Fox and Dove and the assistant missionaries William Joof and Pierre Sallah worked together at St. Mary’s Island during the first six months after his arrival in April 1833. In October 1833, Dove, John and Mary Cupidon, and Pierre and Mary Sallah, left St. Mary’s Island to start their appointed tasks at Macarthy Island.[2] Meanwhile, Fox remained at St. Mary’s, assisted only by William Joof, a Wollof slave and English interpreter and local preacher.[3]

Divine services were held at the 37 feet x 17 feet Mission-House ground floor of Jollof-Town. It was “crowded, even at (5) o’clock in the morning. … The chapel will not hold much more than half the regular congregation… the number of members now at St. Mary’s is two hundred and four” [4] It was the evident prosperity of the mission station observed in January 1834 that prompted Fox to seek the authority of the General Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society (GWMMS) to construct a new chapel. At about the same time, society had been established and a small chapel had been built at Soldier-Town, without any expense from the GWMMS. Preaching was taking place at Goderich Village, located about 3 km east of Bathurst, where a considerable number of liberated Africans were located.

On Sunday, January 26, 1834, Fox reported preaching three times and baptizing forty-three persons at the Jollof-Town Chapel. Six months later, the small chapels at Soldier-Town and Melville-Town were expanded, completed, and opened.[5] It was about this time that Fox acknowledged the ransom money received from the ‘Friends of Ireland’ which was sent for the freedom and redemption of Assistant Missionary Pierre Sallah.[6] Among the congregation, evangelists and local preachers were many Wollof domestic slaves. Fox raised an appeal to English congregations towards the manumission of some Wollof slave-bonded interpreters-preachers-assistant missionaries like William Juff (Joof), Amadi Ngum (Gum) and John Ngum. [8]

By September 1834, Fox had an extremely punishing preaching work schedule at St. Mary’s. He reported this to justify his need to employ at least three more Wollof assistant missionaries, Joof and the Ngum brothers:

At five o’clock, prayer meeting at the (Mission-House) Chapel; at half-past seven, I read prayers to the soldiers at the barracks (at Government House); at ten, read prayers and preach in our own chapel, when the heat, from the lowness of the chapel, and the crowded congregation, is almost insufferable; at half-past eleven, perform duty at the church; at two PM, sail to Berwick-Town, Fort Bullen (in Barra), preach and meet the class, (or go to Melville-Town (Oyster Creek); and at six PM in the evening again preach here (at the Mission-House Chapel); at the close of which I either hold a prayer-meeting, meet the society, or administer the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper. My weekdays also are fully employed: every morning at five o’clock we have a prayer-meeting in the chapel, (these I cannot always attend, from indisposition,) and at half-past six AM the school commences. I have also a considerable number of baptisms, marriages, sick to visit, and funerals to attend; and either prayer-meeting or preaching every evening in the week.[9]

In the midst of such a hectic schedule, the Fox couple lost their six-day-old daughter on September 19, 1834o. The advent of replacement missionaries Reverend Henry and Mrs. Wilkinson in November 1834 provided an opportunity for respite for the Fox family to take a much needed vacation to the Cape Verde islands in March 1835.

Meanwhile, the GWMMS had granted approval to build a brand-new chapel at Jollof-Town. By October 1, 1834, site clearance had begun for construction at the acquired landed property from Francis Goré Ndiaye at the Dobson Street-Clarkson Street-Picton Street block.[10] And on Wednesday, December 3, 1834, the foundation stone of a new chapel was laid by His Excellency, Lieutenant Governor George Rendall Esq. Quality aggregates were quarried and shipped in from Dog Island across the river. Being an architect and builder by profession,[11] he had full responsibility for the supervision and management of the construction of Wesley Chapel, now Wesley Cathedral. It was built in the record time of eight months (October 1834-July 1835).[12] At its opening and dedication ceremony, on July 5, 1835, Chairman and General Superintendent Fox delivered the sermon. Three weeks later, Fox and his sick wife, together with Charles Grant departed St. Mary’s Island for England. Fox promised to return.

True to his word, Fox returned to St Mary’s Island on December 15, 1835, for his second leg of travel (1835-1840). This time, he was accompanied, not by his wife, but by a linguist translator, the Reverend Robert M. MacBrair who was stationed at Macarthy Island.

Ann Fox and their four-year-old son accompanied Fox on the third leg of his travel (March 15, 1840 – May 27, 1843) to St. Mary’s Island. In the rainy season of 1840, a double tragedy struck the Fox family. Their son died on August 30 after barely two days of illness. Then, then eight days later, Ann passed away, just four days after making a successful delivery of their baby daughter, Ann.

Below the sanctuary at Wesley Cathedral are buried the final remains of saints Ann Fox and her two children, the son who predeceased her on her right and the daughter who died in 1834 on her left. These seeds of death in the family represented excruciating symbols of personal sacrifice Fox paid in establishing mission in the Gambia.

Macarthy Island Station Base

Contingent matters necessitated the relocation of Fox to Macarthy Island. First, Thomas Dove had just completed his three-year tour of mission (1833-1836) where he was the de facto project manager for the Foulah Mission. He and his wife left Macarthy Island in April 1836. Secondly, barely one month later, there was the hasty departure of both MacBrair- for good, and Cupidon, only temporarily. These significant absences required the immediate presence of Fox to investigate and resolve the causes of the departures. Consequently, Fox soon transferred the seat of the chairman and general superintendent to the interior mission base of Georgetown on MacCarthy Island, 300 km from the coast.

In this locale at MacCarthy Island, Fox was confronted with the realities of ongoing slave trading and slavery. Both activities have been forbidden in all British dominions since 1807 and 1833, respectively. In continuation with the crusades of earlier Wesleyan Methodist missionaries such as Morgan, Baker, Hawkins, Marshall, Moister, Dove, and now Swallow, Fox resolved to engage actively engaged in the struggle against the slave trade and domestic slavery. He pressured Lieutenant-Governor Rendall of Bathurst, the Commandant at Macarthy Island, the British Merchants, and the domestic slaveholders to implement the law in their respective vicinities and to release slaves.

When pressure alone was not enough, the missionaries endeavored to find money to buy the freedom of their members. It was this practice that brought men like Swallow and Fox into court several times. Slave owners, annoyed by the interference of Methodist missionaries, brought up court cases against them, accusing them of slave trading (because the missionaries bought the slave before they released them, slave owners accused the missionaries of the slave trade).[13]

It was this passion to end slave trading and slavery that prompted Fox to collaborate with the governors to pay state and official visits to the riverine kingdoms; and to pursue independent evangelical outreach missions to the palaces of surrounding kingdoms.

**Evangelical Outreach Mission 1: Jillifree (1836) **

Fox purposely undertook at least four evangelical outreach missions: (1) to Berwick-Town, Berending, and Jillifree in the Kingdom of Barra in 1836 [see Map 1 & Map 2]; (2) to Fattota, Broco, and Ngabantang in the Kingdom of Kattaba in 1836 [see Map 3]; (3) to Fattatenda and Madina Wuli in the Kingdom of Wuli in 1838 [see Map 4]; and (4) to Bolibana in the Kingdom of Bondu in 1838 [see Map 4].

On January 21, 1836, Fox and Wilkinson left St. Mary’s Island to set out for Jillifree (Juffureh) near Albreda on the Ceded Mile of North Bank Region, by boat, on an evangelization outreach mission.[14] Some recent sources have revealed the widespread circulation of firearms at Jillifree within a Euro-African settled community, some of whom were Protestants. (See Coleen Kriger in Mariana P. Candido and Adam Jones. African Women in the Atlantic World: Property, Vulnerability & Mobility, 1660-1880 [Suffolk, UK: Boydell & Brewer, 2021]). The British Merchants had complained about the encroachment of the French on the River Gambia, saying that the setting up of a Comptoir at Albreda was in defiance of the Treaty of Paris of 1814. There were credible indications that slaves were being obtained from Casamance and Guinea-Bissau factories, transported via the Bintang Bolong across the Gambia River to the entrepot of Albreda for onward overland transit to the Island of Goree.[15]

At Jillifree, Fox and Wilkinson started the meeting with a hymn and a prayer. Then they addressed the crux of their mission. Permission was requested that missionaries may come and settle among them to build a school and to enable their children to read and write. Many exclaimed in agreement: Alcoran bettiata! Alcoran bettiata! (It is good to read and write!) [16] About two weeks later, the missionaries sought an audience with the Mansa of Barra at the Berending Palace, to request permission to settle and build structures at Berwick Town and at Jillifree. Copies of the Arabic New Testament were distributed at both Jillifree and Berending.

Evangelical Outreach Mission 2: Madina Wuli and Boolibani Palaces (1837-1838)

Fox made fact-finding trips to the scenes of devastation and slave trading to obtain first-hand knowledge of destabilization. Specifically, he received intelligence information that Jamali (Fitu Fula) was ransacked in 1837 and Brocko in February 1838 [see Map 3]. These were said to be the handiwork of either “Bambara Warriors” from Wuli, or ‘Saul of Tarsus’ Tokolor Islamic adventurists” from Bondou, or Foulah “Robin Hoods” from the Futa Jallon.[17] Having ascertained the perpetrators, Fox took the first step to meet these religious brigands in their dens.

On Wednesday, April 4th, 1838, [Fox] therefore embarked on board the cutter “Fox,” bound for Fattatenda, Mr. Swallow having accompanied him to Fattota. The writer had with him, on this journey, our valuable assistant, John Cupidon, and another member of the society, who was by birth, a [Tokolor] (Laming Buri), [18] though he had never been in the country; he could, however, speak the Foulah language, and, having some knowledge of Divine things, was also of service.[19]

With Wollof translator Cupidon and Foulah translator Buri, servant Wassa, and about three laborers, the peace-making and peace-building team embarked on a twenty-six-day journey to Boolibani in the Kingdom of Bondou [see Map 4]. The secondary objectives were to proclaim the Gospel of God and to seek permission to establish new mission bases. Fox was armed, not with the usual elements of the traders—namely rum, weapons, and ammunitions—but instead with gifts of linen, pieces of cotton blue baft, tobacco, beads currency, and a large number of Arabic Bibles.[20] The latter item may have been facilitated by MacBrair who had served in Egypt before arriving in the Gambia.

At Madina –Wuli, the capital of Sonninke Kingdom of Wuli, Fox paid respects to His Majesty Mansa Koi (who started his reign in 1825), informing him that “It was upon the same business about which I came to see you last year (1837).”[21] Fox repeated his inquiry to His Majesty whether he was still desirous that a Christian missionary be sent to settle among his people? The Mansa reaffirmed his earlier invitation and his commitment to offering land. Then he granted the missionaries permission to proceed on the dangerous route to Bondou with a blessing: “I hope God will preserve you.”[22]

Good Friday of 1838, Friday, April 13th, found the evangelical team at Barrakunda, a Maraboo town (Morrykunda) near Madina Wuli, where they spent the Easter weekend. Fox preached on the all-important subject of Jesus Christ crucified on Good Friday and the resurrected Jesus Christ on Easter Sunday. These proclamations elicited keen reactions from crowds.

A week later, at the large Serahuli Maraboo town of Julangel in Wuli, Fox engaged in an interfaith debate with the Venerable Kabba, the Grand Maraboo of Julangel, in the presence of a large congregation. Having heard the mysteries of salvation in and through the crucified and resurrected Jesus Christ and the experiential religion which resulted, Grand Maraboo Kabba politely responded much as Pharisee Nicodemus did to Jesus Christ: “How can these things be?” [John 3:9]. An Arabic Bible was presented to him as a parting gift.

On Sunday, April 29th, 1838, the team finally arrived at Boolibany, the capital of the Kingdom of Bondou [see Map 3][23]. It was soon learned that the sitting ruler, who was also the Imam or Almamy, was encamped at a small town (the Morrykunda) about ten kilometers south, and was about to leave on an expedition. Immediately, the team proceeded thither to seek an audience. His Majesty Almamy Saada was found under a tent “with about two hundred and fifty of his principal counselors, warriors, and priests within a large square yard surrounded by a wall.”[24] Fox introduced himself as a Wesleyan Methodist missionary of the Gospel from England now stationed in the Gambia. He said he was in the process of seeking to know the lands and the languages around him, and, at the same time, investigating the possibilities of setting up missionary bases in them. Fox informed Almamy Saada that he has already gone to the palaces of kingdoms and paid his respects to the mansas of Barra, Kattaba, or Nyani (Niani), and Wuli. And that each mansa visited had shown him a favorable disposition. Now that he had arrived at the Kingdom of Bondou, he was making the same request to settle a mission and preach and teach in Bondou.

Almamy Saada: Your object appears very good. But what is it that you teach? Is it the same religion as Muhammed, peace be upon Him? Fox: No, we teach differently. Besides, I did not find such a name in the Bible. Almamy Saadav: Do you face the East when you pray? How many years (has your religion been) since the birth of Moses? How many years was it since Muhammed wrote the Quran? Kindly tell us what you preach and teach. Fox: (Holding a beautiful Arabic Bible in hand) It is the contents of this book which we preach and teach.) [25]

In a continuation of the last response, Fox launched his evangelical campaign to the “Saul of Tarsus” Islamic adventurists in front of him! He provided an outline of the beginnings and principles of Christianity, explained subjects like “universal depravity of human nature, the necessity of a change of heart, God’s love to men in the form of a Son, repentance, faith, holiness, future rewards, punishments, and the doctrine of atonement,” and the identity and significance of the manifestation and mystery of the Son of God sent by God to die as an atonement for all humanity! This astounded the Almamy Saada who interjected forthwith: Akodi? Allah ding sa? Wo ma tonyalemu! (Mandinka) (What does he say? God’s Son die? That cannot be true!)

Having acknowledged that Fox was a “man of God,” Almamy Saada sought to extract divination from him to determine what God had in store for them with regards to their planned expedition, what “to do and what not to do.” Fox chose this opportune moment to dwell on the truths of the Ten Commandments or Decalogue (Exodus 20:1-17/ Deuteronomy 5:6-21). He chose to emphasize the prohibitions against Sabbath-breaking (fourth commandment), murder (sixth commandment), adultery (seventh commandment), theft (eighth commandment), lying (ninth commandment), and covetousness (tenth commandment).

Surrounded by a band of armed Jihadists, with a spear in his right hand and a double-barrelled gun at his left, Almamy Saada took an intimidating and definitive posture by firmly asserting:

This is all very good. But we prefer our religion best. All the same, you may visit any part of the Kingdom of Bondou. Whenever you are ready to start your mission here, select the place and then come and let me know. But we cannot leave our religion – we must follow Muhammed![26]

Within the given context and reactionary statement, it dawned upon Fox to press the point for peace, now or never! It was obvious that the adventurist army was preparing “to destroy, pillage, and burn villages, sell slaves, kill pagans, not for greed, but for the power and glory of God.”[27] Fox, therefore, decided to propose some restraint. This was a risk he was determined to take, even if he could be martyred, he was convinced that his spilled blood could be the seed of the first church in Bondou!

At this crucial moment of their meeting, first, Fox presented gifts to the Almamy, as required by custom. He offered: “pieces of baft, some tobacco, [and] a very handsome Morocco-bound gilt-edged Arabic Bible.” Next, he expressed his gratitude for the reception accorded them and “permission to commence a mission in his territories.” Finally, Fox initiated a dialogue:

Fox: Your Majesty, I have one request to make before I leave, which is this; having heard that the Almamy was preparing for war, he will very much oblige me, and I hope it will be pleasing to God if he will abandon the idea, and return to his palace, and live in peace. Almamy Saada: Why should we not go to war? Fox: It is inconsistent with the laws of Moses - your proclaimed beliefs. “Thou shalt not steal,” and “Thou shalt not kill.” And now you are about to do both! Besides, it is sinful, not to say anything about the misery that must follow! Almamy Saada: It is not the good people we should kill, it is only those who do not pray to Allah. And for doing these tasks, Allah would be well pleased with us and will reward us. Even if we should die in battle, we will go to heaven and share in the happiness in paradise… Fox: (shaking hands) I may probably never see you anymore until we meet at the judgment of Jesus Christ. In the meantime, We beg to take our leave….[28]

Mission accomplished. The purpose of Fox’s evangelical mission, from Georgetown to Boolibani, was to spread the good news of peace to the suspected perpetrators. It was time to return home.

Evangelical Outreach Mission 3: Kattaba (Niani) (1842-1843)

After he took his seat at Georgetown on Macarthy Island in June 1836, Fox preached and taught at a number of sites in the Macarthy Island circuit: Georgetown Chapel, Fattota Chapel, Broco (Keseri Kunda) Chapel, Jamali Chapel and Ngahbantang (near Kuntaur) Chapel. He considered himself an “ambassador-general” for Jesus Christ initiating dialogues with petty-chiefs and kings of the surrounding kingdoms with the intention to discourage their involvement in slave trading and slavery, and inviting victim refugees to settle on Macarthy Island. Fox coordinated and implemented a holistic mission. Besides the fundamentals of preaching, building chapels, and teaching at schools, Fox pursued inter-faith dialogue, introduced innovative farming techniques, raised money for manumissions, and conducted vigorous anti-slave trading and anti-slavery campaigns even if he had to go to court.

Mansa Naman of the Kingdom of Kattaba, and his Crown Prince Sangieba were close friends of Fox. They came to him, often, in Georgetown. Sometimes to collect taxes, and at other times just to pay him a consolatory visit, especially when he was down with fever, which happened frequently. Fox would sometimes reciprocate and travel about thirty kilometers away on horseback to the Kattaba and Ngahbantang palaces, or by boat to Yanimaroo, for social visits.

On other occasions, Fox paid purposeful visits to his “friend” at the Kattaba Palace. Fox requested four things from His Majesty Mansa Naman. First, permission to settle and build structures in his kingdom; second, to invite vulnerable Fula groups, threatened by marauders to settle on either Macarthy Island and/or at Ngahbantang, near his palace; third, that Wesleyan Methodist missionaries may preach and teach in his territory; and fourth, to invite princes to come and stay at the Fattota Institution, located by Fort Campbell, Eastern Macarthy Island.

Mansa Naman granted ready approvals to the first and third requests, but hesitated, and declared that he needed more time to consider settling Fulas near his capital and sending his sons to Macarthy Island. With time, however, particularly through the influence of the Crown Prince Sangieba, Mansa Naman yielded to the outstanding requests.

In the early 1840s, the Fattota Institution had been opened and was operational. For a brief period, Mandinka princes, Fula princes, and the sons of liberated Africans were taught together and given western education. They learned reading, writing, and arithmetic, innovative building techniques, and were exposed to mechanized agriculture, and modern animal husbandry. “Four sons of chiefs were enrolled in 1843. Among them were the two sons of the King of Kattaba and one of the sons of the King of Nyabantang. Also, two promising liberated African boys joined the school. The boys, ages 8 to 14, …”[29] They were taught variously by missionaries Swallow, Willam Joof, Samuel Symons, and George Parsonson, as well as the agriculturist William Fisher at the Fattota Institution.[30]


The reverend-architect-builder William Fox was an efficient administrator of Gambia District, shuttling by boat between the twin circuits of St. Mary’s Island and Macarthy Island, 300 kilometers apart. The physical legacies of the architect-builder remain—the Georgetown Methodist Church (1833), the Wesley Cathedral at St. Mary’s (1835), and the Wesley Day School at St. Mary’s (1840). Each surviving structures offers an enduring testimony to his name. Unfortunately, the Fattota Institution at Macarthy Island, which was completed and opened in 1840, has not survived.

Perhaps the greater and most significant legacy was that of Fox as an architect–builder of missions, who, through his relentless evangelical–diplomatic offensives to the palaces of the kingdoms on the Gambia valley and beyond, propagated a gospel of peace, struck friendship with sovereigns, and invited princes to domicile with locals on MacCarthy Island at an institute for the triple purposes of education, acquisition of life-changing vocational skills, and hopefully, Christian conversion through the Holy Spirit!

Gabriel Leonard Allen

Notes: Accessed 2021/03/08 at 12:10 hrs.

  1. Fox, 350.
  2. With the assistance of Commander
  3. Fox, 352.
  4. Fox, 356-357.
  5. Fox, 360.
  6. During a two weeks visit to Bathurst on St. Mary’s Island at the beginning of October 1834, Rear Admiral Frederick Warren, Commander-In-Chief of His Majesty’s Fleet on the Western Coast of Africa, contributed Twenty Pounds ransom money towards the manumission of Amadi Ngum. Fox, 367.
  7. Fox, 360.
  8. Fox, 365.
  9. Source: Dr. Burang Goree Ndiaye is a great-great grand-son of ancestor Francis Goree-Ndiaye. This claim was received from his parents and supported by several of his siblings. This information has been passed down through the family. Interview with Dr. Burang Goree-Ndiaye, Kanifing, March 2020
  10. Fox, 424. Fox supervised several construction projects. He has been credited with the rebuilding and expansion to 40 feet x 25 feet (12.2 m x 7.6 m) of the Grant Street Soldier Town Chapel (June 12, 1834) and the replacement of the Melville-Town Chapel (June 29, 1834). Fox. 358.
  11. The appointed contractor was Charles Grant.
  12. Frederiks, 199.
  13. Fox, 394.
  14. Fox, 262-263.
  15. Fox, 394.
  16. Fox, 443.
  17. Fox, 546-547.
  18. Fox, 447.
  19. Fox, 452.
  20. Fox, 453.
  21. Fox, 453.
  22. Boolibani was located in the vicinity of the present-day city of Kidira in Senegal Oriental on the west bank of the Faleme River, the westernmost tributary of the River Senegal. Boolibani, which was about 400 km from Fox’s seat at Macarthy Island, was reached after twenty-six days of travel. The first leg of the three days journey to Fattatenda was by boat, and then the rest of the trek was overland on horseback.
  23. Fox, 466.
  24. Fox, 466.
  25. Fox, 467.
  26. This was the identical philosophy and results pursued by a future adventurist and Islamic militant, Maba Diahou Ba (Maba) (1860-1867) who launched his virulent jihad in the Baddibus in the North Bank Region of the Gambia, and reported that he “destroyed and pillaged, burned villages, sold slaves, killed pagans, not for greed, but for the power and glory of God.” Lamin Sanneh, Beyond Jihad: The Pacifist Tradition in West African Islam (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016), 206. Citing Martin A. Klein, Islam and Imperialism in Senegal: Sine Saloum, 1837-1914 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1969), 73. and Martin A. Klein, “The Moslem Revolution in19th Century Senegambia,” in Boston Papers in African Studies, edited by J. Butler (Boston: Boston University Publications, 1966).
  27. Fox, 468.
  28. Frederiks, 203.
  29. Fox was involved in repairs and rehabilitation works at the Mission’s Fattota Institution premises at the East of the Island which had a chapel and a house. Fox, 407.


Fox, William. A Brief History of The Wesleyan Missions on the Western Coast of Africa. London: Aylott and Jones, 1850. Frederiks, Martha T.We have toiled all night: Christianity in The Gambia 1456 – 2000. Zoetermeer: Boekencentrum Publishing House, 2003. Mahoney, Asi Florence. Creole Saga: The Gambia’s Liberated African Community in the Nineteenth Century. Banjul: Baobab Printers, Copyright 2006, 2nd Edition 2017. Morgan, Rev. John. Reminiscences of the Founding of A Christian Mission The Gambia. London: Wesleyan Mission House, 1864. Sanneh, Lamin. Beyond Jihad: The Pacifist Tradition in West African Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016. Sanneh, Lamin. West African Christianity: The Religious Impact. Orbis Books: Maryknoll, 1983.

This biography, received in March 2021, was written by Rev. Gabriel Leonard Allen, of the Gambia, a theologian, ecumenist, and interfaith activist Full Ministerial Connection with the Methodist Church in the Gambia. He is also a member of the DACB Editorial Board and a JACB contributing editor.