Enunekwu, Okoligwe Geoffrey
Okoligwe Geoffrey Enunekwu was a contemporary of Peter Okwuegbue.
O. G. Enunekwu was born in 1928. His father was high priest of one of the Emu arch-divinities and he never objected to his son’s Christian faith. In fact, he reportedly even sent his son, Okoligwe, to school.
Okoligwe married Ogonum in 1954 and she bore him ten children, two of whom died. In 1976, he married another woman, Mrs. Janet, who bore him eight children. Chief Okoligwe Emunekwu was converted to the Anglican faith as a primary school pupil. He started conducting church services at standard four.
This ability paved the way for him to be employed as a teacher. The catechist at Abbi at the time met him and asked him who had led the church service the previous Sunday. When he found out Mr. Emunekwu had led the service, he sent him an appointment letter as a teacher at CMS school in Emu Uno in 1951.
In 1953 Okoligwe was transferred to Ishonum. And in 1954 he was sent to work in Esuede, and then to work for a year in Umutu. He was transferred back to Emu Uno in 1960 where he became the headmaster.
In his capacity as headmaster he also functioned as a catechist, conducting prayer meetings and Bible studies, and teaching Sunday school. This was his duty until 1995 when the first trained catechist was sent to the church. During those years, he often rode back on motorcycle to Emu Uno on weekends to man the church. He continued to perform this duty even after his retirement on January 2, 1986.
Jones Ugochukwu Odili
Primary Sources (personal interviews)
Abandi, Gloria, age 45, farmer, interview in Obodeti on 15-06-02.
Abandi, Pius, age 61, retired civil servant, interview in Obodeti on 14-06-02.
Abmokwe, Ikogori P., age 72, Odibo priest, interview in Obodeti on 5-01-02.
Agbadaba, Paul, age 76, Ndichie priest, interview in Obodeti on 5-01-02.
Amaweh, John, age 75, farmer, interview in Obodeti on 9-01-02.
Agwamm, Johnson, age 86, retired civil servant, interview in Emu Uno on 14-07-02.
Ayanbine, Benedict O., age 76, retired teacher, interview in Emu Uno on 8-08-02.
Eke, Johnson, age 87, farmer, interview in Obiogo on 5-07-02.
Enudinuju, Ozeh, age 83, priestess, interview in Emu Uno on 23-03-02.
Idu, Comfort, age 43, trader, interview in Obodeti on 10-06-02.
Idu, Ikechukwu, age 36, civil servant, interview in Obodeti on 12-06-02.
Idu, John, age 66, lay leader, interview in Obodeti on 01-06-02.
Idu, Rudolf, age 28, civil servant, interview in Obodeti on 12-06-02.
Igor, Godwin, age 42, clergy, interview in Emu Uno on 16-04-02.
Igwala, Andrew, age 72, farmer, interview in Emu Uno on 30-06-02.
Ilu, Johnson, age 48, HRH, interview in Emu Uno on 10-07-02.
Izege, Beatrice, age 68, priestess, interview in Emu Uno on 7-02-02.
Johnson, Diabiagu, age 45, farmer, interview in Emu Uno on 17-02-02.
Kpolokpolo, Diana, age 93, trader, interview in Obodeti on 18-01-02.
Maduagu, Alfred, age 78, retired civil servant, interview in Obodeti on 25-06-02.
Maledo, Comfort, age 48, trader, interview in Emu Uno on 13-07-02.
Maledo, John, age 43, civil servant, interview in Emu Uno on 15-07-02.
Maledo, Richard, age 30, civil servant, interview in Emu Uno on 13-07-02.
Nwafiri, Steven, age 32, catechist, interview in Obodeti on 11-06-02.
Ochonogor, Andrew, age 75, retired teacher, interview in Emu Uno on 4-04-02.
Ochonogor, Angelina, age 47, trader, interview in Emu Uno on 06-06-02.
Ogbom, Idiagbon Y., age 82, clergy, interview in Obodeti on 12-04-02.
Ojuma, Chukwu, age 110, Ada, interview in Obodeti on 06-01-02.
Okolie, Samue, age l38, catechist, interview in Emu Uno on 28-07-02.
Okoligwe, Anamali, age 44, trader, interview in Emu Uno on 26-07-02.
Okoligwe, Enuknekwu G., age 63, retired teacher, interview in Emu Uno on 26-07-02.
Okongi, Mathew, age 58, catechist, interview in Iyasele on 28-06-02.
Okoro, Celina, age 50, trader, interview in Ebendo on 07-07-02.
Okorocha, Johnson A., age 96, clergy, interview in Ebendo on 08-06-02.
Okoyoku, Paul, age 57, clergy, interview in Ebendo on 08-06-02.
Okuegbe, Akpogbue P., age 63, retired teacher, interview in Emu Uno on 13-06-02.
Omesa, Mary, age 83, Egine, interview in Emu Uno on 13-02-02.
Omoso, John, age 54, farmer, interview in Ebendo on 07-06-02.
Omojo, Comfort, age 38, trader, interview in Obiogo on 19-07-02.
Onyefuniaga, Osa, age 92, Okwa, interview in Obodeti on 03-03-02.
Osabiku, Andrew, age 56, retired teacher, interview in Emu Uno on 15-07-02.
Osademe, Mathew, age 52, clergy, interview in Emu Uno on 19-07-02.
Osaele, Osuam Chukwuka, age 65, farmer, interview in Emu Uno on 23-07-02.
Osaele, Osuam, Innocent, age 45, farmer, interview in Emu Uno on 23-03-02.
Osifigbhor, Grace, age 70, retired teacher, interview in Obodeti on 24-03-02.
Owete, Okobi E., age 89, farmer, interview in Emu Uno on 24-03-02.
Patrick, Nwaesunaka, age 58, farmer, interview in Obiogo on 20-07-02.
Ajayi, J. F. A. Christian Missions in Nigeria (1841 - 1891): The Making of a New Elite. London: Longman, 1965.
Ayandele, E. A. The Missionary- Impact on Modern Nigeria (1842-1914): A Political and Social Analysis. London: Longman, 1966.
Babalola, E. O. Christianity in West Africa: A Historical Analysis. Ibadan: BRPC, 1988.
Bane, M. J. Catholic Pioneers in West Africa. Dublin: n.p., 1956.
Barrett, D. B. World Christian Encyclopedia: A Comparative Survey of Churches and Religions in the Modern World, AD 1900-2000. Nairobi: O.U.P, 1982.
Beavens, P. R. To Advance the Gospel: Selections from the Writings of Rufus Anderson. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1967.
Camaroff, Jean and John. Of Revelation and Revolution. Vol. 2. Chicago: Chicago Univ. Press, 1997.
Dike, K. O. Origin of the Niger Mission. Ibadan: I.U.P., 1957.
Epelle, E. M. T. The Church in the Niger Delta. Port Harcourt: CMS, 1955.
Erivwo, S. U. The Urhobo, The Isoko and Itsekiri Christianity. Ibadan: Dayster, 1979.
——–. Traditional Religion and Christianity in Nigeria: The Urhobo People. Ekpoma: A. Inno Printers, 1991.
Fashole-Luke, E. et al. (eds.). Christianity in Independent Africa. London: Rex Collings, 1978.
Grimley, J. B. and G. E. Robinson. Church Growth in Central and Southern Nigeria. Michigan, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1966.
Grubb, N. C. T. Studd: Cricketer and Pioneer. London: Lutterworth, 1953.
Hoddgkin, T. Nigerian Perspective. London: OUP, 1960.
Hubbard, J. W. The Sobo of the Niger Delta. Zaria: Gaskiya, 1948.
Idowu, E. B.* African Traditional Religion: A Definition.* London: SCM, 1973.
——–. Olodumare: God in Yoruba Belief. London: Longman 1977.
Ikenga-Metuh, E and C. I. Ejizu. A Hundred Years of Catholicism in Eastern Nigeria, 1885-1985: The Nnewi Story. Nimo: Asele Inst, 1985.
Imokhai, C. A. “The Evolution of the Catholic Church in Nigeria” A. O. Makozi and G. F. Afolabi Ojo (eds.). The History of the Catholic Church in Nigeria. Ibadan: Macmillian, 1982.
Isichei, E. History of Christianity in Africa. London: SPCK, 1995.
Jones, C. H. American Friends in World Mission. Richmond: Indiana. Brethren Pub. House, 1946.
Kalu, O. U. The History of Christianity in West Africa. London: Longman, 1980.
Ladany, L. The Catholic Church in China. New York: Freedom Press, 1987.
Makintosh, H. R. Types of Modern Theology. London: Nisbet, 1937.
Makozi, A. O. and G. F. Afolabi Ojo (eds.). The History Catholic Church in Nigeria. Ibadan: Macmillan, 1982.
Mbiti, J. S. African Religions and Philosophy. London: Heinamann, 1969.
——–. Introduction to African Religion. London: Heinamann 1975.
McGavran, D. Understanding Church Growth. Rev. ed. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1980.
Mudimbe, V. The Invention of Africa: Gnosis, Philosophy and the Order of Knowledge. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1988.
Nyanda, N. H. et al. Speaking for Ourselves: Institute For Contextual Theology. New York: Braam Fountain, 1985.
Okolugbo, E. O. The History of the Ukwuani-Speaking People of the Niger Delta: An Introduction. Umutu: Ossai Printing Press, 1982.
——–. The History of Christianity in Nigeria: The Ndosunmili and the Ukwuani. Ibadan: Daystar, 1984.
Omosade, J. et al. West African Traditional Religion. Ibadan: Onibonjo, 1979.
Parfinder, G. West African Religion. London: Epsworth, 1969.
Peel, Y. “The Christianisation of African Society,” E. Fashole-Luke et al. (eds.). Christianity in Independent Africa. London: Rex Collings, 1978.
Pobee, J. S. (ed.). Religion in a Pluralistic Society. London: E. J. Brill, 1976.
Ray, R. C. African Religions, Rituals and Community. Englewood-Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1976.
Shenk, W. R. Henry Venn: Missionary/Statesman. New York: Orbis, 1983.
Tasie, G. O. M. * Christian Missionary Enterprise in the Niger Delta, 1864-1918.* Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1978.
——–. “Christian Awakening in West Africa, 1914-18: A Study in the Significance of Native Agency.” O. U. Kalu (ed.). The History of Christianity in West Africa. Longman, 1980.
Thomas, O. C. (ed.). Attitudes Towards Other Religions. London: SCM, 1969.
Tippet, A. R. Solomon Island Christianity: A Study in Growth and Obstruction. London: Lutherworth, 1967.
Walker, F. D. The Romance of the Black River. London: SCM, 1931.
Walls, A. F. “Towards Understanding Africa’s Place in Christian History.” J. S. Pobee (ed.). Religion in a Pluralistic Society. London: E. J. Brill, 1976.
Wold, J. C. God’s Impatience in Liberia. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983.
Wotogbe-Weneka, W. O. The Bishopric of Sam O. Elenwo. Port Harcourt: Link Advertising, 2000.
Adogbo, M. P. “The Search for the Biblical Satan in Urhobo Traditional Religion.” The Nigerian Journal of Theology 17 (June 2003). Pp.27-38.
Ajayi, J. F. A. “Bishop Crowther: An Assessment,” Odu (1968). Pp.3-19.
Ajayi, W. O. “Aspect of Protestant Missionary Work in Northern Nigeria” Odu 3:1 (July, 1966). Pp.41-55.
Akama, E. S. “The Initial Growth and Problems of the Pioneering Mission Churches in Isokoland of Nigeria (1914-1944)” Journal of Religon, and Culture (2002). Pp.7-23.
Aiman, Jean. “Making Mothers Missionaries, Medical Officers and Women’s Work in Colonial Asante, 1924-1945” History Workshop Journal 38 (1994). Pp.23-47.
Ayandele, E. A. “The Missionary Factor and Northern Nigeria, 1879-1918.” Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria, 3:3 (Dec. 1966). Pp.503-522.
Bevans, S. “Doing Theology in North America: A Contextual Model.” The Gospel and Our Culture. Holland Western Theological Seminary (1993). Pp.43-67.
Danmole, H. O. “The Crescent and the Cross in the Frontier Emirate: Ilorin in the 19th century.” Orita Ibadan Journal of Religious Studies xvii: 1. (June, 1985). Pp.23-36.
Fisher, H. “Conversion Reconsidered: Some Historical Aspects of Historical Conversion in Black Africa.” Africa 43 (1974). Pp.128-152.
Haney, M. S. “Issues of Contextualization: Christians and Muslims” Studies in World Christianity 3:2 (1997). Pp.154-179.
Horton, R. “African Conversion” Africa 41 (1971). Pp.85-108.
Ifemesia, C. C. “The Civilizing Mission of 1841.” Journal of Historical Society of Nigeria 2:3 (1962). Pp.138-157.
Ikenga-Metuh, E. “Religious Concepts in West Africa Cosmogonies.” Journal of Religion in Africa xxxii: 1 (1982). Pp.11-24.
Kenny, J. “Religious Movements in Nigeria: Divisive or Cohesive? Some Interpretative Models.” Orita Ibadan Journal of Religious Studies, xvi: 2 (Dec 1984). Pp.111-128.
Kolapo, F. “CMS Missionaries of African Origin and Extra-Religious Encounter at the Niger-Benue Confluence, 1858-1880.” *African Studies Review *(Sept 2000). Pp.87-115.
Liu, William and Beatrice Leung. “Organisational Revivalism: Explaining the Metamorphosis of China’s Catholic Church.” Journal of Scientific Study of Religion 4:1 (2002). Pp.121-138.
Mills, J. O. Commentary. New Blackriars[sic] (Jan. 1984). Pp.1-5.
Onaiyekan, J. “What We Saw and Heard at the African Synod.” Bulletin of Ecumenical Theology 6:2 (1994). Pp.1-12.
Raheb, M. “Contextualizing the Scriptures: Towards a New Understanding of the Quran–an Arab-Christian Perspective.” Studies in World Christianity 3:2 (1997). Pp.180-201.
Schlorff, S. P. “Muslim and Christian Apologetic.” Missiology: An International Review (April 1993). Pp.289-301.
Strayer, R. “Mission History in Africa: New Perspectives on an Encounter.” African Studies Review 19:1 (1976). Pp.1-15.
Thomas, S. “Transforming the Gospel of Domesticity: Luhya Girls and Friends African Mission, 1917-1926.” African Studies Review 4:2 (Sept. 2000). Pp.1-27.
Turner, P. “The Wisdom of the Fathers and the Gospel of Christ: Some Notes on Christian Adoption in Africa.” Journal of Religion in Africa iv: 1 (1974). Pp.45-68.
Wilson, F. R. “The San Antonio Report: Your Will Be Done–Mission in Christ’s Way.” WCC Publications, 1990.
This story, received in 2003, was reprinted with permission from “The Role of Indigenous Agents in the Advent and Growth of the Anglican Church in Emu Clan of Delta State 1911 - 2002,” a Masters thesis (Department of Religious and Cultural Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria) by Mr. Jones Ugochukwu Odili.